In this lesson, we will learn how to determine if a student has passed based on their grades in three subjects: math, English, and science. This is a fundamental exercise in programming that involves basic arithmetic operations and conditional statements. Understanding how to compute averages and make decisions based on those averages is crucial in many real-world applications, such as grading systems, performance evaluations, and data analysis.

Before diving into the solution, let's review some basic concepts:

**Variables:**Used to store data values. In this case, we will use variables to store the grades.**Arithmetic Operations:**Operations like addition and division will help us compute the average of the grades.**Conditional Statements:**These allow us to execute certain code based on whether a condition is true or false. We will use this to determine if the student has passed.

Understanding these basics is essential as they form the foundation of our solution.

Let's break down the key concepts and techniques involved in this exercise:

**Storing Grades:**We will use three variables to store the grades for math, English, and science.**Computing the Average:**We will add the grades together and divide by the number of subjects to find the average.**Conditional Check:**We will use an if-else statement to check if the average grade is above a certain threshold to determine if the student has passed.

Consider the following example:

- Math grade: 85
- English grade: 90
- Science grade: 80

To compute the average:

(85 + 90 + 80) / 3 = 85

If the passing grade is 60, the student has passed because 85 is greater than 60.

Here are some common mistakes to avoid and best practices to follow:

**Incorrect Average Calculation:**Ensure you divide by the correct number of subjects.**Edge Cases:**Consider edge cases like grades being exactly on the passing threshold.**Code Readability:**Use meaningful variable names and add comments to make your code easier to understand.

For more advanced scenarios, you could extend this exercise to handle more subjects, different passing thresholds, or even weighted averages where some subjects are more important than others.

Here is the Java code to solve this problem:

```
public class StudentGrades {
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Variables to store grades
int mathGrade = 85;
int englishGrade = 90;
int scienceGrade = 80;
// Compute the average grade
double averageGrade = (mathGrade + englishGrade + scienceGrade) / 3.0;
// Define the passing grade
double passingGrade = 60.0;
// Check if the student has passed
if (averageGrade >= passingGrade) {
System.out.println("The student has passed.");
} else {
System.out.println("The student has not passed.");
}
}
}
```

This code snippet demonstrates how to store grades, compute the average, and use a conditional statement to determine if the student has passed.

To debug and test your code:

**Print Statements:**Use print statements to check the values of variables at different stages.**Test Cases:**Create test cases with different grade values to ensure your code works correctly in all scenarios.

Example test case:

Math: 50, English: 60, Science: 70 Expected Output: The student has passed.

When approaching this problem:

**Break Down the Problem:**Divide the problem into smaller tasks like storing grades, computing the average, and checking the condition.**Write Pseudocode:**Outline your solution in plain language before coding.**Practice:**Try similar problems to strengthen your understanding.

In this lesson, we covered how to determine if a student has passed based on their grades. We discussed the importance of understanding basic concepts, walked through the solution step-by-step, and provided tips for debugging and testing. Mastering these concepts is essential for solving more complex problems in programming.

For further reading and practice: