Given an array **nums** of integers, find three non-overlapping subarrays with maximum sum.

Return the total sum of the three subarrays

**Example:**

Input:[2, 3, -8,7, -2, 9, -9,7, -2, 4]Output:28Explanation:Subarrays [2, 3], [7, -2, 9] and [7, -2, 4] have the maximum sum of 28

**Note:**

- Subarrays must be
**non-empty** **nums**contains at least**three**numbers

The core challenge of this problem is to find three non-overlapping subarrays that yield the maximum possible sum. This problem is significant in scenarios where we need to maximize profit or benefits from distinct segments of data, such as financial analysis or resource allocation.

Potential pitfalls include overlapping subarrays and not considering all possible subarray combinations.

To solve this problem, we need to consider the following steps:

- Calculate the sum of all possible subarrays.
- Use dynamic programming to keep track of the maximum sums of subarrays ending at different positions.
- Ensure that the subarrays are non-overlapping.

We will start with a naive approach and then optimize it.

The naive approach involves checking all possible combinations of three subarrays. This is not optimal due to its high time complexity of O(n^3).

We can optimize the solution using dynamic programming. The idea is to use three arrays to store the maximum sum of subarrays ending at different positions:

`left`

: Maximum sum of subarray ending at or before each position.`right`

: Maximum sum of subarray starting at or after each position.`total`

: Maximum sum of three subarrays.

Here is a step-by-step breakdown of the algorithm:

- Calculate the prefix sums of the array to quickly get the sum of any subarray.
- Fill the
`left`

array with the maximum sum of subarrays ending at or before each position. - Fill the
`right`

array with the maximum sum of subarrays starting at or after each position. - Iterate through the array to find the maximum sum of three non-overlapping subarrays using the
`left`

and`right`

arrays.

```
public class MaxSumOfThreeSubarrays {
public int maxSumOfThreeSubarrays(int[] nums) {
int n = nums.length;
int[] prefixSums = new int[n + 1];
// Calculate prefix sums
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
prefixSums[i + 1] = prefixSums[i] + nums[i];
}
int[] left = new int[n];
int[] right = new int[n];
// Fill the left array
int maxSum = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
if (i >= 2) {
int currentSum = prefixSums[i + 1] - prefixSums[i - 2];
if (currentSum > maxSum) {
maxSum = currentSum;
}
}
left[i] = maxSum;
}
// Fill the right array
maxSum = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (i <= n - 3) {
int currentSum = prefixSums[i + 3] - prefixSums[i];
if (currentSum > maxSum) {
maxSum = currentSum;
}
}
right[i] = maxSum;
}
// Calculate the maximum sum of three non-overlapping subarrays
int result = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
for (int i = 2; i <= n - 3; i++) {
int currentSum = left[i - 1] + (prefixSums[i + 3] - prefixSums[i]) + right[i + 3];
if (currentSum > result) {
result = currentSum;
}
}
return result;
}
}
```

The time complexity of this approach is O(n) because we are iterating through the array a constant number of times. The space complexity is also O(n) due to the additional arrays used for prefix sums, left, and right.

Potential edge cases include:

- Arrays with all negative numbers.
- Arrays with all positive numbers.
- Arrays with a mix of positive and negative numbers.

Each algorithm handles these cases by ensuring that the subarrays are non-overlapping and by using prefix sums to quickly calculate subarray sums.

To test the solution comprehensively, consider the following test cases:

- Simple cases with small arrays.
- Cases with large arrays to test performance.
- Edge cases with all negative or all positive numbers.

Use testing frameworks like JUnit to automate the testing process.

When approaching such problems, consider breaking down the problem into smaller subproblems. Use dynamic programming to store intermediate results and avoid redundant calculations. Practice similar problems to improve your problem-solving skills.

In this blog post, we discussed how to solve the problem of finding the maximum sum of three non-overlapping subarrays. We explored a naive approach and an optimized approach using dynamic programming. We also provided a detailed algorithm, code implementation, and complexity analysis. Understanding and solving such problems is crucial for improving problem-solving skills and preparing for coding interviews.

For further reading and practice, consider the following resources: